Histories in Conflict: Haus der Kunst and the Ideological Uses of Art, 1937-1955

EXHIBITION, 75/20 10.06.12 – 13.01.13

"This year Haus der Kunst marks the 75th anniversary of its public opening. This anniversary gives us the opportunity to reflect on the historical legacy of the museum, especially on the building as an icon of ideological power; on the various positions of art through its history and the stories of what it is today."(Okwui Enwezor, 2012)

With the exhibition "Histories in Conflict: Haus der Kunst and the Ideological Uses of Art, 1937-1955", Haus der Kunst commemorates the 75th anniversary of its opening in the summer of 1937. This date serves as the basis for the examination of its own past and the contemplation about the complex historical processes that produced Haus der Kunst in its present form.

The exhibition's historical parameters are 1937 and 1955. This was a period of social and political development, whose beginning was marked by National Socialist ideology and end was characterized by the early days of West Germany's transformation to a democratic constitutional state. During these 18 years, not only did the contextual orientation of Haus der Kunst change decisively, but the cultural-historical changes taking place also paved the way for its further development as an international exhibition venue. Today Haus der Kunst plays a formative role in the discussion about relevant positions in contemporary art. 

Built as the "House of German Art", Haus der Kunst was erected between 1933 and 1937 according to the plans of Adolf Hitler's favorite architect, Paul Ludwig Troost. The Neo-Classical building was a symbol for the assertion of National Socialist art policy. While an exhibition here celebrated a predominately conservative realism as the only true "German" art, Modernism was condemned as "degenerate" and denied its right to existence. Significantly, the opening of the vilifying show "Degenerate Art" took place in the Gallery Building on the Hofgarten the day after the pompous inauguration of the "House of German Art." The banning of this art by cultural policy left a void, which efforts following the war quickly tried to fill. Haus der Kunst once again became a symbol, this time for the return of Modernism to the place where Hitler's cleansing crusade against the avant-garde had begun. The most important exhibitions during this period included "The Blue Rider" (1949), "Painters at the Bauhaus" (1950), Max Beckmann (1951), Frank Lloyd Wright (1952), Wassily Kandinsky, and Paul Klee (1954), as well as the Picasso retrospective in 1955. 

"Histories in Conflict" investigates the stages of the institution's history in the context of political and cultural transformations, as well as their international parallels and references. Major exhibitions, which were decisive for the topography of 20th century art and which included the 1937 Paris World's Fair, the Venice Biennales and the first documenta in 1955, are the coordinates of the international dimension of Haus der Kunst's history. The exhibition "Histories in Conflict" thus explores the relationships between the "Great German Art Exhibition" and the vilifying show "Degenerate Art", or, for example, between Albert Speer's German pavilion for the Paris World's Fair, in which a model of the House of German Art was exhibited, and the Spanish pavilion, in which Picasso's "Guernica" – an icon of anti-war art – was on view. Both the exhibition "Picasso" in Haus der Kunst, which presented the painting "Guernica" for the first time in Germany, and Arnold Bode's documenta 1 took place in 1955. By exhibiting works by artists who had been condemned in the "Degenerate Art" exhibition in 1937, Haus der Kunst aimed to reconnect with international modernism. 

"Histories in Conflict" depicts, in an exemplary manner, what Okwui Enwezor understands a "reflexive museum" to be: committed to contemporary art, while simultaneously examining and mediating the historical dimension of the contemporary. For the exhibition, Haus der Kunst invited the Swiss conceptual artist Christian Philipp Müller to develop a dramaturgy which traces the building's history. 

Further information about 75/20  

 

Model of the
Model of the "House of German Art" at the "Glanzzeiten deutscher Geschichte [Great Events in German History]" parade on the 1933 "Day of German Art", from: Verzeichnis der Aufnahmen verschiedener Arbeiten by Paul Ludwig Troost, ca. 1935. Image: Atelier Troost, © Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte
Histories in Conflict, installation view, Haus der Kunst, photo Maximilian Geuter
Histories in Conflict, installation view, Haus der Kunst, photo Maximilian Geuter
Histories in Conflict, installation view, Haus der Kunst, photo Maximilian Geuter
Histories in Conflict, installation view, Haus der Kunst, photo Maximilian Geuter
Histories in Conflict, installation view, Haus der Kunst, photo Maximilian Geuter
Histories in Conflict, installation view, Haus der Kunst, photo Maximilian Geuter
Histories in Conflict, installation view, Haus der Kunst, photo Maximilian Geuter
Histories in Conflict, installation view, Haus der Kunst, photo Maximilian Geuter
Histories in Conflict, installation view, Haus der Kunst, photo Maximilian Geuter
Histories in Conflict, installation view, Haus der Kunst, photo Maximilian Geuter
Histories in Conflict, installation view, Haus der Kunst, photo Maximilian Geuter
Histories in Conflict, installation view, Haus der Kunst, photo Maximilian Geuter

Stretch your view


Stretch your view

Picture Gallery


Pdf, Essay

History of the air-raid shelter in Haus der Kunst

Text on the history of the former air-raid shelter in Haus der Kunst by Munich historian Sabine Brantl. MORE


In the press

Histories in Conflict

Read a selection of the latest press reports, radio features, and reviews of the exhibition. MORE


Booklet

Histories in Conflict

10.06.12

The illustrated online tour guides you through the six stations of the exhibition "Histories in Conflict", which takes a critical look at Haus der Kunst's historical heritage. MORE


Publication

Haus der Kunst, Munich. A Place and Its History in National Socialism

01.11.15

Allitera Verlag Munich, 2015. Published by Haus der Kunst. MORE


75/20

MORE


Essay

Art in the "Third Reich": Hitler's 'Brush Worker'

SPIEGEL ONLINE article on Adolf Ziegler, painter and president of the Reich's Chamber of Visual Arts, whose painting "The Four Elements" was on view in the exhibition "Histories in Conflict" MORE


The Confiscation of "Degenerate Art" 1937–38

Database on all works of “degenerate art” confiscated from German museums in 1937/38. Project by the Freie Universität Berlin MORE


EXHIBITION

Wounds of Memory

06.05 – 28.05.95

With "Wounds of Memory", organized on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the liberation from Nazi dictatorship, Haus der Kunst wanted to draw attention to the war's horrific banality. MORE


EXHIBITION

Degenerate Art — The Iconoclasm 25 Years Ago

The exhibition commemorated the defamatory "Degenerate Art" exhibition, which was ordered by Adolf Hitler and took place at the same time as the lavish launch of the "House of German Art" in 1937. MORE


Poster

Histories in Conflict

MORE


Video

Interventions into Architecture

Video about the artworks currently installed on Haus der Kunst's facade – by Mel Bochner, Christian Boltanski and Gustav Metzger MORE


Poster

Histories in Conflict

MORE


Worksheets

Histories in Conflict

Worksheets on topics related to the exhibition "Histories in Conflict" (10.06.12-13.01.13) can be downloaded (in German). MORE


Permanent Exhibition

Archive Gallery 2017/18

18.07.17 – 04.02.18

The focus is the summer of 1937 in Munich, when the new Haus der Deutschen Kunst opened with the first "Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung", and the vilified show "Entartete Kunst" [Degenerate Art] was presented concurrently in the gallery building in the nearby Hofgarten MORE


Activity sheets

Riddle rally for parents and children

Are you planning a visit to Haus der Kunst with kids? With pencil in hand, your children will be entertained as they discover the works of art. MORE


In the press

Reviews on Archive Gallery in Haus der Kunst

Here you find different press reactions to the newly opened Archive Gallery. MORE


Guest article by Okwui Enwezor in Süddeutsche Zeitung on the rennovation of Haus der Kunst

In this guest article for Süddeutsche Zeitung, Okwui Enwezor, Director of Haus der Kunst, answers questions and concerns raised over the planned renovation of Haus der Kunst. MORE


State Minister reports in parliament on current situation concerning renovation of Haus der Kunst

David Chipperfield Architects was commissioned with the planning of the building's renovation. MORE


Worksheets

Worksheets on Archive Gallery

Worksheets on topics related to the Archive Gallery can be downloaded here. MORE